6. Name of individual Silk Roads component part: Madrasa Khoja Mashad
Brief description of the object-component:
Madrasa Khoja Mashad was built in IX - XII cc. The layout composition consists of a rectangular courtyard of 40 x 31 m size, with a number of rooms (hujras) in the east and west sides. There are two cupola hall and aivan with flanked flowers yard (guldasta) between them in the southern part. The northern part of the site is the same as the southern one, but in the smaller sizes. The vaulted aivans with the same 4-meter spans are placed on the axes. The south (main) facade was built of baked bricks, the others - three parts of the site are from the raw bricks and pakhsy.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property
The total area of the site is 1,5 ha. Both sides of it are surrounded by tombs and dwellings of the population. Since 1972, the site was taken to the registration and protection. The caretaker who is appointed and paid by Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Tajikistan is responsible for the protection of the site since 1982. The protection zone meets all regulatory requirements. Nowadays the restoration and repair works are holding by financial support of the U.S. Embassy in Tajikistan for its preservation and conservation. Khoja Mashad is considered as one of the important tourist sites in the Republic of Tajikistan.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property: why selected against SoOUV (including explanation of why other similar sites not selected
The direct analogy to the composition principle is the architectural ensemble of X - XI cc, Sultan Saodat in Termez. There are some similarities in methods of construction - laying bricks in "Christmas tree" shape, design type of arches, and cupolas. Also the similarity in interior composition and character of vaulted cupolas design was found in mausoleum of Baba Rushnoi in northern Afghanistan. The architectural, decorative and ornamental techniques of the southern facade Khoja Mashad have a direct analogy to the mosque Talkhatan Baba, caravanserai Dai-Khatin, mausoleum Muhammad-ibn-Zayd, the mausoleum of Khoja Nakhshran #1 in Regar.
Khoja Mashad is one of the oldest madrasa, which included even more ancient mausoleum of IX c. The unique design of an arch of Khoja Mashad is the combination of wedge-edged laying and cut laying and the direct analogies of that is not found. The origin of the triple frieze crowning the eastern facade of the building is not clarified and this also has no analogy. This can be attributed to a wide circular aperture at the height of the cupolas of the eastern and western buildings, too.
It is one of the not numerous pre-Mongol madrasah of XI-XII centuries, which was kept until nowadays. There are premise of the mausoleum, mosques and yard ivans (summer-house) round the right-angled yard, from the north to the south. There are two large cupola buildings united with arch Ivan in the north part of the territory. This construction built with burnt bricks (25x25x4 cm.) is known as the Mausoleum of Hodja Mashkhad or "Double Mausoleum". Other parts of the madrasah built of adobe bricks was broken and was excavated. The total territory of the madrasah is (68 x 48 m.) The south façade of the mounument has two round towers in the corner of the cupola building. It was excavated some arch rooms (3,5-4 m.) surrounding the large yard, ivans in the north, east and west sides of the yard. The ivans are 4 m. wide. Brittleness of the adobe bricks is a cause of the destruction of many monument in Tajikistan. That is why the kepts ones made of burnt bricks are of great value. The mausoleum part of the madrasah consist of two building (10,4 x 10,4 m.) they have sphere cupola. The foundations of the cupolas have arch windows fro the south side, and round opening in the keystones of the cupolas. The east mausoleum is earlier (IX-X centuries), it's a typical Central Asia central-cupola building of the early middle ages. Its west and east walls have doors. The west mausoleum has some little differences in detail, such as ornament of the walls.
Off. of Preservation and Restoration of Monum. of History and Culture, Artistic Ex. Min. of Culture