吉尔吉斯斯坦的丝绸之路遗产点Nomadic Monuments of Inner Tien Shan
Name of property
State, Province or Region
Geographic (lat/long) or UTM Coordinates of approximate centre point
Nomadic Monuments of Inner Tien Shan
Kyrgyzstan, Inner Tien Shan, Naryn oblast
Koshoi- Korgon- 55,6
Tash-Rabat-28,5 Manakeldy-31,8 Shyrdakbek - 38,3
41" 7' 24, 83 N
75" 41' 59, 63 E
42" 09' 45.8N
75" 50' 19.9E
Name of individual Silk Roads component property: Nomadic Monuments of Inner Tien Shan
Brief description of the component property:
These series represent cultural heritage of high-mountainous region of Kyrgyzstan located in the north of the country. First of all, these are monuments of tangible culture of the nomadic population, represented by grave and funeral complexes, rock carvings and epigraphics, dated from last centuries BC to XVIII centuries AD inclusive. Kochkor valley, called Yarysh in the Middle Ages, is identified with the reserved zone of Turkic kagans, mentioned in the written sources of early Middle Ages. Images of horsemen-soldiers with falcons, accompanied with ancient Turkic inscriptions (24 pieces) and tribal tamgas (symbol) can be seen on separate boulders (1 to 3 m height) in the Kara Too mountain ridge, in the southeast of the valley. Turkic stone grave enclosures with gravestones were found in the same area. Kyrgyz necropolises, vivid example of which is Kyrk-Choro complex near the Kum-Aryk village, have also doubtless value. Natural mazars (sacred places) tell about elements of archaic beliefs and people's ecological culture, later adapted for Islam, in particular, sacral mountains of Kochkor-Ata in Kochkor and Chesh-Tobe in At-Bashy areas. One more type of monuments of this region is quarters of medieval nomadic rulers: sites of Koshoj-Korgon and Shirdakbek settlements. Koshoj-Korgon, located in the centre of the high-mountainous At-Bashy valley, at the altitude of 2500 m, is a square construction with the sides 250 х 245 m long. Walls are made of paksa and mud blocks (remained height from 4 to 8 m). The structure is surrounded by a ditch, from 11 to 14 m in width. Excavations revealed remains of inhabited and manufacture constructions inside the settlement, as well as outside. It is identified with the medieval historical city of At-Bash, which mainly functioned in IX-XII centuries AD, but was also live in Timur's times.
Shyrdakbek site is also qualified as a quarter of local nomadic rulers, is located to the southwest from At-Bashi, in Ak-Talaa area, in the Valley of Ala Buka river. Lay-out and building materials are similar to the previous monument; its sizes are 120х117 m, width of walls is 6 m, remained height is about 6 m, construction is surrounded by a ditch. Square adobe construction is located separately in 0, 5 km to the south. Limited excavations revealed traces of craft and agriculture. Period of functioning is from IX to the beginning of XIII centuries AD. It is identified with the historical city of Kadzhingar-Bashi.
Another type of the monuments located on the Tien Shan branch of the Silk Road is caravans-sarays. Two sites have preserved: Tash-Rabat and Manakeldy (Chaldyvar). Tash-Rabat is located in the western part of the At-Bashy valley, on the small river of Kara Koyun, at the altitude of 3200 m. Square construction, with the length of external perimeter of walls 32,4х34,8 by 32,4х35,1 m, is made of slate plates. Facade, decorated with towers, is turned to the east. Internal lay-out consists of the central corridor, the square hall and a number of premises ceiled with the big dome and 19 domes of small diameter. It was constructed in Karahanid times, in XI-XII centuries AD; functioned till Timur's time and served as caravan-saray for the routes going to Kashgar through Tash-Rabat and Torugart passes. Manakeldy is located in Ak-Talaa area, at the altitude of 2500 m, on the bank of Ala Buka river inflow. It is a square construction, with the sizes 64х64 m, maid of mud bricks and pakhsa. Entrance was in the centre of the northern wall, limited by two rectangular towers-pylons. Other corners and walls of the construction were fortified by towers, and the front northern wall was decorated by a half goffers. The internal lay-out had the following appearance: two lines of corridors along the walls and square and rectangular premises between the corridors. Adobe feeding troughs for animals were traced in different places of the external corridor. A court yard occupied the centre of the construction. Casing and domes were applied for ceilings. The caravan-saray provided services for travelers of the route from Fergana valley to areas of inner Tien-Shan and Issyk Kul. Main period of functioning is X-XII centuries AD.
Natural climatic conditions of the region, suitable for cattle breeding, dictate preservation of many components of a traditional way of life of mountain nomads. It is specific cuisine with specific processing of products, crafts from manufacturing of yurtas to felt and jewelery. The technology of felt and felt products manufacturing is not only remained, but also develops, having turned into a separate industry of arts and crafts. Traditions of the leather processing and manufacturing of leather products are not forgotten. Forms, methods and skills of traditional hunting, including hunting with the Kyrgyz hounds and falcons have remained, too. Traditional land tenure: djailoo - summer pastures and kyshtoo - winter station has remained, too. Other kinds of intangible heritage: toponymics, Sanjyra (oral transfer of genealogy), art of story tellers, ceremonial songs, national games, - demonstrate a traditional way of life of the Tien Shan nomads.
Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property:
Basic sites-components of these series are in the State Lists of monuments of national and local importance. Those monuments and settlements which are in a zone of economic activities are affected by development factors. It concerns Kyrk-Choro necropolis which was used for burials of later periods. Petroglyph site with runic inscriptions to the south from Kara Suu village and burial complex Kok-Sai are in a satisfactory condition. Cult places - sacral mountains Kochkor-Ata and Chesh-Tobe are under the protection of local communities. Sites of Koshoj-Korgon, Shyrdakbek, Cholok-Korgon, caravan-sarays Tash-Rabat and Manakeldy are in quite good condition; however state of adobe walls is not stable. Especially for Koshoj-Korgon, where some parts of defensive walls are affected by natural and anthropogenic factors. A site museum, constructed in 2007, is intended not only for exhibiting of materials from the site, but also for its protection and preservation. The limited erosion of adobe structures at Shyrdakbek and Manakeldy sites is detected. Restoration works at Tash-Rabat were carried out in the late seventies of the last century. As a whole, sites of these series have kept authenticity and integrity. In the framework of the new National Program on Research, Preservation and Use of Monuments of Historical and Cultural Heritage, which is being developed, the priority will be given to the monuments of the remote regions, including Inner Tien Shan.
Comparison of the Silk Roads component property with other similar properties, whether on the Silk Roads or not, and the reasons that make the property stand out:
Specificity of this part of the Silk Road is that it served high-mountainous and a remote zone to a certain extent occupied by nomads. This territory was occupied by the settled population, which has laid a way from east Fergana to the mountainous valleys of Tien-Shan in the early Middle Ages. Process of sedentarization of the local population and urbanization of the region began late, since X century. As a whole, comparison is possible only with those parts of the Silk Road, which are in similar natural conditions that are in high-mountainous regions, e.g. Alai, Chon-Alai, Karategin, and Pamir.