Poykent is located in the lower stream of Zarafshan River and was one of the largest cities of the oasis. The city was consisted of citadel, two sites of ancient settlement and rabod (suburb).
According to the archaeological researches, this place was founded as a small village in the IV century B.C. and later was transformed into fortress. At that period being as trading place, this city connected Southern countries (Bactria, India, Iran) with Northern countries (Front of Ural, Coast of Volga, Northern Caucus) and Poykent was one of the important military and trade centre of the Western borders of the Sogd. Due to the development of the Great Silk Road and joining with Poykent fortress have been founded first and second sites of ancient settlement. Hence was founded the city Poykent.
According to Chinese chronicles, this city was under the "An" (Bukhara) kingdom and was the centre of "Bi" khanate. Also was noted that in Poykent was not khokim (governor), the city was ruled by traders' council and in full sense of the word the city was the republic in the VI-VII century. The scientists of Institute of Archaeology of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan carrying out scientific researches in ruins of the city for a long times. As a result, Zoroastrian temples, palace and the mosque, built by IX century, and remnants of tower were found in citadel. In the inner part of city were discovered defensive walls, gate, roads and remains of quarters (makhallas), while in outside of rabads the city - potter centers and caravanserais. According to the researchers, due to inaccessibility of lower flaw of Zarafshon River, the city seized existence in the middle of the IX century.