印度丝绸之路遗产地Silk Road Sites in India

摘要: DescriptionNo.Name of PropertyState, Province or RegionArea (ha.)Geographic (lat/long) or UTM Coordinates of approximate centre point  1.  Ruins of Ancient Vaishali  Bihar  Vaishali  2.77 (Vaishali)  



Name of Property

State, Province or Region

Area (ha.)

Geographic (lat/long) or UTM Coordinates of approximate centre point


Ruins of Ancient Vaishali



2.77 (Vaishali)

7.30 (Kolhua)

25 59 N 85 6 E


Remains of Vikramshila Ancient University




25 19 N 87 17 E


Buddhist remains of Kushinagar

Uttar Pradesh, Kushinagar

6.4 (Kushinagar)


26 45 N 83 55 E



Uttar Pradesh, Sravasti


27 31 N 82 02 E



Uttar Pradesh, Kaushambi


25  20 N 81 23 E



Ramnagar, tehsil Aonla, district Barreilly, Uttar Pradesh



Ancient Site and Buddhist Stupa (Sanghol)"

State- Punjab, Distt. Fatehgarh Sahib, Tehsil- Khamanu, Locality- Sanghol (Uncha Pind)


30 47N 76 23E


Arikamedu, Early Historic Site

Union Territory  0f Pondicherry

13.89 Hectares(34.33 acres)

11 55 N 79 50E


Excavated Remains of Kaveripattinam(Excavated remains of Buddhist vihara and temple at Pallavaneswaram-Melaiyur)

Nagapattinam district,Tamil Nadu

0.405 hec

(1.03 acres)

11 12 50 N

79  52 50 E


Ancient monastery and stupa together with adjacent land (Harwan)

Jammu & Kashmir, Kashmir Valley

74 kanals 06 Marla

34 9N 74   84E


Mound Locally

Known as Burud

Kot (Nalla

Sopara Stupa)




Locality- Nalla




19 25N 72 47E



NCT Delhi

19.010 approximate

28 34 N 77 12E

1. Name of individual Silk Roads component properties: Ruins of Ancient Vaishali

Brief description of the component property:

I.   Kolhua :- The Excavations conducted by Archaeological Survey of India have unearthed remains of KutagarshalaSwastika-shaped monastry, a tank, cluster of votive stupas, miniature shrines, main stupa and the Ashokan Pillar.  The main components of structure and the antiquity belonged to the period ranging from Maurya ( 3rd Century B.C.) to post Gupta (7th Century A.D.).

The pillar locally known as "Lat" is 11.00 meters high monolithic polished sand stone column surmounted a seated lion capital. It is probably one of the earliest pillars of Ashoka ( Emperor of Mauryan Empire)  and does not bear the usual edict. But a few letters in shell characters of Gupta period are engraved on it.

The brick stupa was erected to commemorate the event of offering honey to Buddha by the monkey chief. It was originally built during Mauryan period (323 B.C. to 232 B.C.) and subsequently enlarged in Kushan period (1st - 2nd Century A.D.) by raising the height and providing brick paved circumambulatory path. Further brick encasing took place during Gupta and late Gupta periods.

The adjoining tank has been identified as 'Markat-Hrad', supposedly dug by the monkeys for Buddha. This brick lined seven tiered tank measuring approximately 65 x 35 metres in dimension having two bathing ghats (terrace) on southern and western wings.

Kutagarshala represents the spot where Buddha used to stay during the rainy seasons at Vaishali.  Excavations have exposed three phases of its construction. Originally it was a small Chaitya built during Sunga-Kushana period ( 2nd Century B.C. to 3rd  Century A.D.). Subsequently it was enlarged to a lofty temple in 2nd phase during Gupta period. And finally in third phase temple was converted into a monastery by providing a number of partition walls during post-Gupta times.

The other monastery which looks like a swastika («) on plan has twelve rooms, three on each arm attached to common verandah around an open central courtyard with the entrance towards east. The monastery has a toilet chamber attached to its southern wall. It was constructed during Gupta period probably for nuns.

Antiquities like beads of semi precious stone, terracotta figurines, seals and sealing, bricks embedded with semi precious stone, inscribed potsherd and an unique terracotta figure of crowned monkey found during the excavations of the site are kept on display for visitors in the local site museum run by ASI.

II.       Relic Stupa :- The stupa has been identified as one among the eight stupas containing the corporeal remains of Buddha. Excavation of this site carried out by K.P.Jayaswal Research Institute in 1957-58 revealed that originally it was a mud stupa in a smaller dimension erected by the Lichhavis over their share of relic of Buddha in circa 5th Century B.C. Ayakas noticed in southern and eastern side are probably the earliest example of its kind. A soap stone casket found in core of the Stupa contained ashy earth, a small conch, two glass beads, a small piece of gold leaf and a copper punch marked coin. In the Mauryan, Sunga and Kushana period the stupa got its enlargement and the diametre of the stupa increased to 17.1 metre.

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property:

 i.         It is still placed amidst a calm setting not much disturbed by the forces of urbanization, industrialization or modernization.

ii.         The site is well preserved and retains complete authenticity of ancient character and ambience.

iii.         Ever since it's coming into being, the site is protected by ASI and as such is preserved on archaeological principles and norms. Throughout the period, repairs have been carried out using original materials and integrity of site remains undisturbed.

Comparison of the Silk Roads component property with other similar properties, whether on the Silk Roads or not, and the reasons that make the property stand out:

Though there are relic stupas elsewhere also (like Piprahwa, Amaravati, Nagarjunkonda etc.), the relic stupa at Vaishali is so far accepted to be the earliest stupa.Similarly, Asokan pillar are there at many other places but the Vaishali pillar with a square abacus is regarded as the earliest and is the only one which is un-inscribed.

Though there are a good number of monasteries scattered all over the country, presence of a swastika shaped monastery meant for nuns has been found only at Vaishali. At no other monastic site we find such a large tank with a system of privacy at its bathing ghats.

2. Name of individual Silk Roads component properties: Remains of Vikramshila Ancient University

Brief description of the component property:

Meticulous excavation has revealed a huge square monastery with a cruciform stupa in its centre, a library building and cluster of votive stupas. To the north of monastery a number of scattered structures including a Tibetan and a Hindu temple have been found. The monastery or residence for the Buddhist monks is a huge square structure, each side measuring 330 metres having a series of 208 cells, 52 on each of the four side. The entire spread is over an area of more than hundred acres. On the walls are decorated with mouldings and terracotta plaques which testify the high excellence of terracotta art of flouring in the region during Pala period (8th-12th Century A.D.). Over the plaques are depicted many Buddhist, Brahminical deities and human figures and animal and birds are also depicted. A rectangular structure identified as library building was air conditioned by cooled water of the adjoining reservoir through a range of vents in the back wall.

History and development

Vikramshila was a famous seat of learning. It flourished from the last quarter of the 8th Century A.D. to the beginning of the 13th Century A.D. In the beginning it was a prime centre of science, philosophical and religious discussion and after sometimes. Vikramshila was developed into a university. The celebrated university was founded by Pala King Dharmapala in late 8th or early 9th Century A.D.  It prospered for about four centuries  before it collapsed in the beginning of 13th Century A.D. Vikramshila was one of the largest Buddhist University having more than one hundred teachers and about one thousand students. It produced eminent scholars who were of often invited by foreign countries to spread Buddhist learning, culture and religion and the most distinguished and eminent was Atisa Dipankara, the founder of Lamaism in Tibet in 11th Century A.D. Subjects like theology, philosophy, literature, medicine, yoga, astronomy, grammar, metaphysics, logic etc. were taught here but the most important branch of learning was tantras because Vikramshila flourished in the days of tantricism when accult science and magic became favourite subject of study both in Buddhism as well as Hinduism.The teaching was manned by eminent scholars and the administration was looked after by a Board. The board of Vikramshila also administered the University of Nalanda. The management of Nalanda and Vikramshila universities came into common hands because king Dharmapala was the King over the entire region and he was very favourably disposed towards Vikramshila. Academic administration was under the control of six dvara panditas. The students who wanted to take administration had to face a test, which was conducted by the dvara panditas. In 1203 A.D. the monastery was destroyed by the Muhammadans under the leadership of Bakhtiyar Khilji. He killed the monks who were present in the monastery. It was a tragic end of a great centre of education and learning.       

Statement of authenticity and/or integrity of the individual component property:

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